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Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in fit humans (n = 15 young women) during treadmill running. “Work rates” refer to an increasing treadmill grade of 2% every 2.5 min while speed is maintained at 6–10 miles/h.A: exercise-induced arterial O2 desaturation at maximal exercise due almost equally to a reduction in Embedded Image and a rightward shift in the HbO2 dissociation curve (acidic pH = 7.29; temperature = 38.2°C). Also, note reduction in Embedded Image beginning at submaximal work rates and progressing to maximum. B: effect of preventing exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) (via Embedded Image of 0.26) and of acute hypoxia ( Embedded Image of 0.15) on Embedded Image andV˙O 2. Note that changes in Embedded Image do not affectV˙O 2 at submaximal work rates but do change the plateau effect at and near peak work rates. The 0.21 and 0.26Embedded Image data are from Refs. 13 and 14, and effects of 0.15 Embedded Image were estimated from data in Refs. 7 and 28.